初中英语学习中关系代词的用法

2021-01-10 英语词汇

  导语:代词是初中英语包括中考英语考试中必然要考到的语法知识点,也是英语学习过程中的基础。 以下是小编为大家精心整理的初中英语学习中关系代词的用法,欢迎大家参考!

  1. that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:

  Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that作主语

  The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that作宾语

  2.which用于指物,在句中作主语或宾语,作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:

  The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语

  The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语

  3.who, whom用于指人,who 用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom, 也可省略。例如:

  The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.经常在英语方面帮助我的`那个女孩是英国人。(作主语

  Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to? 正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(作宾语

  注意:(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who, that, which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词 which/whom”结构。例如:

  This is the house in which we lived last year.这是我们去年居住的房子。

  Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。

  (2)含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如:

  This is the person whom you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个人。

  (3)that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如:

  The city that she lives in is very far away.她居住的城市非常远。

  (4)关系词只能用that的情况:

  a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

  He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一个通过考试的人。

  b.被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

  Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在商店里有什么东西要买吗

  c.先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

  This is the same bike that I lost.这就是我丢的那辆自行车。

  d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that, 而不用which.例如:

  I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。

  e.以who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.例如:

  Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁

  f.主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.例如:

  There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上那本书是汤姆的。

  (5)关系词只能用which,而不用that 的情况:

  a.先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that.例如:

  What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么

  b.关系代词前有介词时,一般用which,而不用that.例如:

  This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。

  c.引导非限制性定语从句,用which, 而不用that.例如:

  Tom came back, which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。

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